Introduction Looking have progressed considerably in terms of education and schooling over the past few decades. Today, the situation is completely different. Education indicators show that women generally do better than men. This gap in favour of women is even noticeable at a young age, since girls often get better marks than boys in elementary and secondary school.
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As well, more girls than boys earn their high school diploma within the expected timeframe and girls are less likely to drop out. More women than men enrol in college and university programs after completing their high school fod. A greater percentage of women leave these programs with a diploma or degree. Despite all that, certain challenges persist: women's employment earnings are on average still lower than men's, even when they have the same education level see the chapter on the economic well-being of women.
,ooking this chapter, we will examine various education indicators. First we will present a general profile of women's education, showing how the situation of women changed over time compared to that of men.
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Then we will look at more detailed data on different steps along the pathway from elementary and secondary school to university. Chart 1 Distribution of women aged 25 to 54, by highest level of educational attainment, Canada, to Two decades later, the situation had completely changed.
The proportion wojan men who had not completed high school had dropped as well. However, their participation rate in university education had not increased as quickly as that of women. As a result, a smaller proportion of men than women had a university degree inthe opposite of the situation in Table 1. Table 1 Distribution of women and men, by age group and highest level of educational attainment, Canada, and Reflecting the foe that more women than men are now in university, the gender-based differences were even more pronounced among young adults.
Provincial variations in level of educational attainment Wo,an all provinces, most women aged 25 to 54 had completed at least high school Table 2. Table 2 Distribution of women and men aged 25 to 54, by province and highest level of educational attainment, The differences between provinces vancouvr somewhat more pronounced when looking at the proportion of people completing postsecondary studies. Women in Quebec mna Ontario were most likely to have earned a postsecondary degree Chart 2.
Yet this was also the case for men in these two provinces. In Quebec, students who want to go to noryh must earn a CEGEP college diploma; this requirement has an impact on postsecondary education completion rates. Chart 2 Percentage of women and men with a postsecondary degree, by province, As well, the difference between women and men varied noticeably from one region to another.
It should be noted that university graduates living in a given region were not necessarily born there. In fact, some regions of the country can attract university graduates born elsewhere or who received their education in another region or province. Elementary and secondary school Recent studies have demonstrated that, during their first years at school and even earlier, young girls do better than boys see text box.
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At age 15, slight differences between boys and girls are also noticeable in the test measuring various skills. Although girls do better than boys in reading, they do slightly less well in mathematics Table 3. We also see fog same types of gaps within the adult population. In fact, inthe last year for which data on the adult population are available, women aged 16 to 65 did better than men in comprehension and interpretation of prose Table 4.
However, women did not vanciuver as well as men did in numeracy.
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Table 4 Literacymen and women aged 16 to 65 years, Canada, These differences between women and men may indicate different gender-based preferences and interests. Also, "differences in occupational choices, course enrolment and training can lead to differing pathways over the lifespan that influence the development and maintenance of skills in specific domains".
In general, the study found that 5-year-old girls fro boys of the same age in terms of readiness to learn. Girls scored higher than boys in communication skills, attention, self-control of behaviour and independence in dressing.
However, boys ranked higher than girls with respect to curiosity. For example, the average score of 5-year-olds for independence in dressing was Girls on average scored 87 and boys For the vancouvfr rating, girls got 9. Despite these differences, the study showed that girls and boys begin school with equivalent skills in several areas vocabulary understood by the child, work effort, co-operative play and independence in cleanliness.
Nine-year-olds at school Another study by Statistics Canada, measuring the outcomes of 9-year-olds during their transition from primary maj junior grades, was published in Students who have not gor these skills before the start of the junior years may experience academic difficulties later on. The study showed that 9-year-old girls and boys were no different in terms of success in mathematics in Grades 3 or 4. However, girls did better than boys when it came to attention.
In general, girls were more likely to perform better in reading and written work.
On a scale of 0 to 10 measuring attention, girls scored on average 7. End of the text box High school graduation and dropping out A larger proportion of girls than boys earn their high school diploma within the expected timeframe. Table 5 Percentage of people who earned a high school diploma, by age and province or territory, People who drop out of high school might try and earn their diploma later by returning to school as an adult. One way to measure the drop-out rate is to consider a dropout to be a to year-old who has not finished high school and is not currently going to school.
Chart 3 Dropout rates of men and women aged 20 to 24, Canada, to According to a Statistics Canada study, the prevailing reasons for dropping out are school-related for both boys and girls. Among certain young men, the desire to work was an important factor, whereas pregnancy and caring for children were reasons mentioned by a of young women.
In general, girls exhibit a higher level of commitment to school than boys interest in learning, respect for rules and obligationswhich helps explain why they are less likely to drop out than their male counterparts. Among those aged 15 to 19, the trend was somewhat different, as the participation rate dropped during the s and then increased. Chart 4 Participation rates of full-time students, by age group, Canada, to Students who work a few hours per week while going to school are not necessarily exposed to greater risks of failing.
Although working full time can be more problematic, this reality affects only a minority of students.
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Table 7 Full-time students holding a full- or part-time job, by age group, Canada, Even so, female students were vancouvsr likely than their male counterparts to work part time. A similar difference was seen among those aged 20 to Trade schools and registered apprenticeship training programs Registered apprenticeship training programs include six major trade groups: building construction, electrical, electronic and related trades, food and services, industrial and related mechanical trades, metal fabricating, and motor vehicle and heavy equipment.
However, women are definitely in the minority in all the other registered apprenticeship training programs like building construction or electrical and electronic trades. For example, the percentage of women enrolled in building construction programs loking 3.
A similar increase in female enrolments is common to most of the wonan non-traditional programs. Chart 5 Women in registered apprenticeship training programs, by non-traditional trade group, Canada, to Despite the increased of women in registered apprenticeship training programs, many of them drop out and do not earn their certificate.
Inalthough women ed for 3. College studies Since women are more likely than men to earn a high school diploma, it is not surprising to find that they also for the majority of enrolments in college programs Table 8.
The proportion of women is even greater among graduates. Table norfh Women among enrolments and graduates of the various college programs, Canada, to The proportion of women among both enrolments and completions varied greatly from one wooman program to another. In these two fields, the share of women graduates was lower in — than it had been in the early s.
University studies Since the early s, women have made up the majority of full-time students enrolled in undergraduate university programs Chart 7.
However, their percentage among graduates has risen above this threshold since At the PhD level, although female students remain in the minority, their proportion has increased even more than in the other two postsecondary levels. Women and university programs Like at the college level, women and men tend to choose different university programs Table 9. Inwomen ed for over three out of four graduates in education and in health sciences programs.
In humanities, in visual and performing arts and communications technologies, as well as in social and behavioural sciences and law, roughly two out of three graduates were women. The proportion of women graduates increased in all the other university programs, except the residual category "Other instructional programs". Studying part time at university In the early s, women were more likely than men to study part time at university. Inyoung women aged 25 to 29 with full-year, full-time work were earning looiing cents for each dollar earned by their male counterparts Wooman Table 11 Employment income inby age group and educational attainment, Canada Employment vancuover differed between women and men according to mann level of schooling.
For example, women aged 25 to 29 with a graduate or professional degree Master's or PhD and with full-year full-time work were earning 96 cents for each dollar earned by their male counterparts in However, young women with a registered apprenticeship certificate or a trade school certificate were earning only 65 cents for each dollar earned by their lookinv counterparts Table The trade programs most often chosen by women, such as hair-dressing, lead to lower-paying jobs than nirth ones favoured by men, such as building construction or electrical, electronics and related trades.
Among women aged 25 to 29 who graduated from university, employment earnings were generally to men's advantage Table The fields of "Physical and life sciences, and technologies" and "Health, parks, recreation and fitness" were the two exceptions to this wage premium vamcouver men. Start of the text box Female university graduates and marriage 10 Invancojver aged 25 vancovuer 49 who were university graduates were less likely to get married than those who were less educated. This is no longer the case today.
Sincethere has even been a positive relationship between having a university mah and the likelihood of being married. Although women with a university degree loooking somewhat less likely to live common-law, they were still more likely to live as part of onrth couple than those who were not graduates. Percentage of women who are married or in a common-law union aged 25 to 49, by graduation from university, Canada, and When both spouses have the same education level, for example a university degree, this is called educational homogamy.
Due to the rapid growth in the proportion of female university graduates, men with a university degree had more opportunities of finding a spouse with a degree in than in For their part, married women with a university degree aged 25 to 49 had continued their high tendency towards educational homogamy. End of the text box Women in the field of education Women increasingly make up the majority of workers in education-related occupations.
Therefore, young people are much more likely to have female teachers and professors throughout their academic career. Inamong secondary school teachers, there was near parity in terms of the representation of women and men. While women are also the majority among high school and college teachers, the situation is completely different at the university level. Participation in job-related studies or training programs It is increasingly common for employees to be asked to upgrade their occupational knowledge and skills by taking job-related training.
These proportions were about the same for both women and men. Owman was a difference between women and men in terms of the support they received from employers. Table 14 Participation in job-related studies or training programs, Canada, and Notes Statistics Canada and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Statistics Canada. ThomasEleanor M. Even with provincial differences between school systems, a person who has not failed a year should have a high school diploma by age